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Haycock Environmental Consultants Limited

Independent Hydrologist and  Waterscape Consultants

Buffer Zones:

THEIR PROCESSES AND POTENTIAL IN WATER PROTECTION


The Proceedings of the International Conference on Buffer Zones September 1996


Edited by:


Dr Nick Haycock

Haycock Environmental Consultants Limited, UK


Professor Tim Burt

University of Durham, UK


Professor Keith Goulding

IACR – Rothamsted, UK


Professor Gilles Pinay

CNRS, Université de Rennes, France


Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection


First Published by Quest Environmental, PO Box 45, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 5LJ, UK (Business changed it's name to Haycock Associated Limited, April 2000)


Electonic PDF Version Published by Haycock Associated Limited March 2001. Copyright held by Haycock Environmental Consultants Limited, 2012-


Hardcopy Copyright © 1997

Quest Environmental, PO Box 45, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 5LJ, UK


Electronic Verion © 2001 Copyright transferred to Haycock Associated Limited, 11 Edison Close, St. Albans, Herts. AL ORB

.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of Haycock Environmental Consultants  Limited. Except in the case of A. Tytherleigh (1997) Chapter 26: The Establishment of Buffer Zones – The Habitat Scheme Water Fringe Option, UK, which is covered in its entirety by © Crown Copyright.


Great care has been taken throughout this book to ensure accuracy. However, Haycock Environmental Consultants Limited  accepts no responsibility for any errors that may have occurred. Any comments or corrections should be addressed to Haycock Environmental Consultants Limited  at the address given above. Haycock Environmental Consultants  Limited accepts no responsibility for any loss or damage arising from the interpretation or use of the information, or reliance upon views contained within this book.


British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 0 9530051 0 0


Chapter Headings


1 Introduction 1

N.E. Haycock, T.P. Burt, K.W.T. Goulding and G. Pinay


Part I: The Processing of Target Chemicals Within Buffer Zones


Buffer Zones and Water Quality Protection: General Principles

D.L. Correll


The Hydrological Role of Floodplains within the Drainage Basin System

T.P. Burt


Buffer Zones as Sediment Traps or Sources

T.A. Dillaha III and S.P. Inamdar


The Interactions of Buffer Zones and Phosphorus Runoff

J. Uusi-Kämppä, E. Turtula, H. Hartikainen and T Yläranta


Nitrogen Dynamics and Buffer Zones

J.W. Gilliam, J.E. Parsons and R.L. Mikkelsen


Pesticide Contamination of Surface Waters – The Potential Role of Buffer Zones

G.L. Harris and A. Forster


Grassed Buffer Zones to Limit Contamination of Surface Waters by Pesticides: Research and Action in France

J.J. Gril, B. Real, L. Patty, M. Fagot and I. Perret


The Relationship between Land Use, River Bank Quality and Lotic Macroinvertebrate Community

B. Gumiero and G. Salmoiraghi


Contaminant Effects on Microbial Functions in Riparian Buffer Zones

P.M. Groffman


The Influence of Sedimentation on Vegetation Structure

J. Girel and G. Pautou


Part II: The Potential of Habitat Types to Act as Buffer Zones

The Potential Role of In-Stream and Hyporheic Environments as Buffer Zones

A.R. Hill


The Potential Role of Riparian Forests as Buffer Zones

R. Lowrance


Effectiveness of Buffer Strips for Attenuation of Ammonium and Nitrate Levels  in Runoff from Pasture Amended with Cattle Slurry or Inorganic Fertiliser

A. Núñez Delgado, E. López Períago and F. Díaz-Fierros


The Potential Role of Ponds as Buffer Zones

S. Fleischer, A. Joelsson and L. Stibe


The Potential Role of Wet Meadows and Grey Alder Forests as Buffer Zones

U. Mander, K. Lõhmus, V. Kuusemets and M. Ivask


The Potential Role of Riverine Wetlands as Buffer Zones

C.A. Johnston, J.P. Schubauer-Berigan and S.D. Bridgham


The Potential Role of Mid-Field Forests as Buffer Zones

L. Ryszkowski, A. Bartoszewicz and A. Kedziora


Modelling Internal Processes of Riparian Buffer Zones

A.J. Gold and D.Q. Kellogg


Modelling the Interaction between Buffer Zones and the Catchment

P. Merot and P. Durand


Part III: The Creation, Restoration and Long-term Sustainability of Buffer Zones


Ecorestoration of Riparian Forests for Non-point Source Pollution Control  Policy and Ecological Considerations in Agroecosystem Watersheds

B.C. Dickson and D.J. Schaeffer


Economically Viable Buffer Zones – The Case for Short Rotation Forest Plantations

D. Riddell-Black, G. Alker, C.P. Mainstone, S.R. Smith and D. Butler


A Critical Review of the Value of Buffer Zone Environments as a  Pollution Control Tool

T. Addiscott


Long and Short Roads to Riparian Zone Restoration: Nitrate Removal Efficiency

M.T. Downes, C. Howard-Williams and L.A. Schipper


The Establishment of Buffer Zones – The Habitat Scheme Water Fringe Option, UK

A. Tytherleigh


The Potential Impact of Buffer Zones in Agricultural Practice 265

R.J. Cook


Buffer Zones and Farming Systems

J. Baudry


Integrating Vegetative Buffer Zones within Catchment Management Plans

J.L. Gardiner and C. Perala-Gardiner


Encouraging Implementation of Riparian Buffer Schemes – The New Zealand Experience

A.B. Cooper, N.I. Ngapo, T.G. Parminter and M.J. Stroud


Buffer Zones: Current Concerns and Future Directions

N.E. Haycock, G. Pinay, T.P. Burt and K.W.T. Goulding


Buffer Zones edited proceedings (1996)

In 1996, an international conference was organised by Dr Haycock to gather together, for the first time, international researchers working on the functioning of riparian ecotones. These strips of marginal land, next to streams and rivers, appeared to have the ability to influence the quality of the water environment, having an effect that was disproportionate to their size with their respective catchments. Effects on stream temperature from riparian tree shading was researched in the 1950's but the work of US and New Zealand scientists in the 1970-1980's demonstrated an impact of riparian trees on the chemistry of streams. Through the 1980's and 1990's, this work expanded to major research in many countries where the hydro-chemical effects were further explored. The conference aimed to bring this community of scientists together and consolidate our understandings. "As I am apt to remind people when I talk about this subject, individuals through history have remarked on the significance of riparian woodland, whether it be Homer in the Iliad remarking on the power of the headwater forests to break the strength of the raging flood, or the Magna Carta (1215) legally protecting rights on accessing riparian zones, society had intuitively understood their role. Over the last 40 years, their deeper signficance to the protection of the water environment has become more apparent."


The conference occurred at a key moment in land mangement policy in the western world, with concerns about the excessive nitrate and phosphate in lakes and rivers resulting in calls for major land use changed. The concepts and knowledge of scientists working on riparian ecotones and their buffering functions, would result in major land management initatives in the US (Chesapeake Bay Initiative) and within the EU (stream margin protection). In the UK voluntary codes, supported by the National Farmers Union, are aiming to create 1000's of hectares of protected stream margins. In many western countries, catchment nutrient management is a key environmental tool for the protection of the aquatic environment.


It is therefore timely that Haycock Environmental Consultants are able to release a PDF for the book to make it available to as wider audience as possible.